Teaching and Learning with Graphing Calculators
What Can Be Learned with Graphing Calculators
Conclusion
Effective teaching with graphing calculators is shown to help students develop a better understanding of mathematical concepts, use higherlevel approaches to solving math problems, and score higher on performance measures. Virginia Commonwealth University
SRI International
University of York
INRP

Conclusion
Students' use of graphing calculators is reported to build a deeper conceptual understanding of math. San Jose State University 
How to Teach with Graphing Calculators
Conclusion: Studies indicate that students' operational and problem solving skills improve when they use graphing calculators during both instruction and testing.
Virginia Commonwealth University

Conclusion: Benefits of using graphing calculators are strongest when teaching focuses on their use for conceptual understanding and problem solving strategies.
INRP

Conclusion:Appropriate use of graphing calculators in teaching does not interfere with building students' math skills.
Michigan State University

Conclusion: Students who use technology are more successful when teaching emphasizes concepts and connections between representations rather than procedural algebraic approaches
Michigan State University

Conclusion: • Access to and use of graphing calculators seems to increase achievement • Achievement decreases for both users and nonusers of calculators as the cognitive demand of the tasks increases • While the background and experience of the teachers appear to make a difference for the top 75 percent of the students, some students perform at very low levels with or without the technology
Michigan State University 
Duration of Use and Ownership
Conclusion: Research shows that when students use graphing calculators frequently, they tend to score higher on national, state, and schoollevel tests. Some studies have included use both in class and in homework. Research also indicates that it is not simply the frequency of access but types of use that matters.
SRI International
all show higher achievement when students have access to a personal graphing calculator both in and outside of class. An experimental study of Calculus in the Netherlands study provides the strongest evidence to date of the benefits of frequent access to graphing calculators. Research also indicates that it is not simply the frequency of access but types of use that matter. Selective access to the calculator (depending on the learning activity) during class is a best practice. Reference: Center for Technology in Learning (2009) “Should students have frequent access to graphing calculators? TI Research Note 3. Menlo Park, CA: SRI International.

Conclusion: The more students use graphing calculators during instruction the higher their test scores.
Heller Research Associates

Conclusion: Students do better in math when they use a graphing calculator both in class and at home.
Southwest Educational Development Laboratory

Conclusion: While a longer duration spent using graphing calculators may increase learning, quality of use counts more than duration.
Michigan State University
Virginia Commonwealth University

Conclusion
University of Trier 
Use on HighStakes Tests
Conclusion: Broadly speaking, unless a test’s goal is to measure mental arithmetic and related simple computational skills, including graphing calculators on tests does no harm. Further, including graphing calculators may increase the validity of the test and enable more accurate measurement of student skills in realistic situations.
SRI International
SRI International

Impact on Student Subgroups
Conclusion: Addressing students’ special needs must start with getting the foundations of mathematics teaching right. Within good teaching practice, technology can support special needs students by offering multiple ways to represent mathematics, support action and expression, and engage students’ interest, consonant with the principles of Universal Design for Learning.
SRI International 
Conclusion: AfricanAmericans, Latinos and low SES students appear to benefit as well as other students from calculator access and emphasis on reasoning.
University of Iowa

Conclusion: Middle school Students with disabilities showed increased achievement when they used a graphing calculator.
Purdue University 
Attitudes Towards Math
Conclusion: Effective use of graphing calculators has been shown to improve students' attitudes toward math.
Virginia Commonwealth University / SRI International
Reference: Center for Technology in Learning (2007), "How can teachers translate students' positive attitudes towards ICTs into better mathematics learning?" Research Note #12, Menlo Park, CA

Conclusion: Skilled middle school mathematics teachers who use calculators can positively affect students' attitude, confidence, engagement and achievement.
Northern Arizona University

Conclusion: Addressing students’ special needs must start with getting the foundations of mathematics teaching right. Within good teaching practice, technology can support special needs students by offering multiple ways to represent mathematics, support action and expression, and engage students’ interest, consonant with the principles of Universal Design for Learning.
Reference: (SRI International 2009) 
Conclusion: To improve mathematics in lowperforming schools, educators should address a broad range of factors systemically, including an intensification strategy, coherent curriculum, effective pedagogy, deeper teacher mathematics knowledge, positive social factors and supportive organizational structures.
SRI International 
Conclusion: Using the graphing calculator helped students maintain productive affect for problem solving.
McCulloch 2011 
Computer Algebra System (CAS)
Conclusion:Teaching with CAS can raise student performance.
Technical University of Darmstadt

Conclusion:Use of a Computer Algebra System (CAS) may have learning benefits when used to focus on learning math concepts, and may have motivational benefits.
SRI International Reference: Center for Technology in Learning (2007), "Why should math teachers consider using technology with Computer Algebra Systems (CAS) features?" Research Note 10, Menlo Park, CA

Conclusion:Development of symbol sense is influenced by the adoption of CAS. Especially when transitioning from arithmetic to algebra, the pupils’ views of algebra as well as their conceptions of algebraic objects seem to be affected by the availability of CAS.

Conclusion:CAS use in college calculus can increase student achievement.
United States Military Academy at West Point

Conclusion:In Bavarian Grade 10 math classes using CAS: • Competence improved in topics involving work with graphs and switching between representations. • Algebra skills developed developed to the same level as nonCAS classes. • Poor and average students improved more than good students. • Student reaction to the graphing calculator was mixed. In addition, teachers reported that new teaching methods are possible with the technology, in individual, small and large group work

PreService Teacher Education
Conclusion:Increased integration of graphing and data collection technologies in methods teaching was observed to raise preservice teacher confidence and understanding of the use of classroom technology.
City University of New York 
Conclusion:Preservice teacher attitudes toward TINspire were reported to be significantly positively effected when its use was modeled by exemplary practice in the field.
Brooklyn CollegeCUNY 
Conclusion:Using TINspire technology in preservice teacher education was reported to stimulate pedagogical reflection and the motivation to learn in new teachers.
Florida State University

Conclusion:Preservice teacher educators should examine lessons learned from the SimCalc project for development of effective instructional models using graphing calculators and classroom networks.
University of Massachusetts  Dartmouth 
Conclusion:3 key factors impact teaching and learning of mathematics with graphing calculators (GC): access to GC, the place of GC in the mathematics curriculum, and connection between GC and pedagogical practice.
Brigham Young University 3 key factors impact teaching and learning of mathematics with GC: access to GC, the place of GC in the mathematics curriculum, and connection between GC and pedagogical practice. Implications for preservice and inservice teacher ed are summarized. 