# Activities

• • • ##### Subject Area

• Math: Statistics: Probability and Random Variables

• ##### Author K-5

60 Minutes

• ##### Device
• TI-73 Explorer™
• ##### Other Materials
This is Activity 7 from the EXPLORATIONS Book:
Integrating Handheld Technology into the Elementary Mathematics Classroom .

## Probability

#### Activity Overview

Students examine predictable outcomes of events such as flipping a coin or rolling a dice. They see that these events repeated many times form a pattern of distribution. They explore the probability concepts of most likely and least likely.

#### Before the Activity

• See the attached PDF file for detailed instructions for this activity
• Print pages 85 - 100 from the attached PDF file
• #### During the Activity

Distribute the pages to the class.

Activity 1: Multiply or Add to get a Larger Number

• Roll three dice and list the rolls as - a, b, and c
• Predict if the outcome will be a x b > b + c or a x b < b + c or a x b = b + c
• Use the calculator to simulate the roll of three dice and record the results in a table
• Calculate a x b and b + c
• Repeat 20 trials and analyze data collected
• Find the percent of each instance and the probability of each outcome
• Identify the "most likely" outcome and the "least likely" outcome

• Activity 2: Flip Five
• Predict the probability of getting exactly three heads, at least 3 heads, and no more than 3 heads when five coins are flipped
• Use the calculator to simulate flipping five coins and record at least 20 flips
• Record the data in a table and tabulate the number of heads in each series of flips
• Compare the prediction with the experimental results
• Use a tree diagram along with the list of possible outcomes to find the theoretical probability

• Use other elementary school activities to develop an understanding of probability
• #### After the Activity

Review students results and re-teach concepts as necessary.