# Activities

• • • ##### Subject Area

• Math: Statistics: Probability and Random Variables

• ##### Author 6-8

60 Minutes

• ##### Device
• TI-73 Explorer™
• ##### Other Materials
This is Activity 11 from the EXPLORATIONS Book:
Discovering Mathematics with the TI-73: Activities for Grades 7 And 8

## Probably Not!

#### Activity Overview

Students learn to find the theoretical probability of different female/male combinations in a family of kittens. Students will investigate empirical and theoretical probabilities and make a connection to Pascal's triangle and binomial outcomes.

#### Before the Activity

• See the attached PDF file for detailed instructions for this activity
• Print pages 99 - 105 from the attached PDF file for your class
• #### During the Activity

Distribute the pages to the class.

• Given a problem to find the probability that a cat will deliver 5 calico female kittens
• Divide the class in pairs
• Each pair simulates the flipping of 5 coins 50 times on the calculator, with 1 standing for heads (female), and 0 standing for tails (male)
• Keep a tally chart of all outcomes
• Record results of each group
• Generate lists for the number of female kittens, team frequency totals, and class frequency totals
• Enter data in lists and plot a bar graphs of number of female kittens versus team frequency totals and number of female kittens versus class frequency totals
• Make a list of all possible combination of outcomes and complete the summary table provided
• Complete Pascal's Triangle
• Use Pascal's Triangle and the summary table to complete the Theoretical Probability Table
• Generate a list and enter fractional probabilities
• Generate another list with the predicted or expected numbers
• Create a double bar graph and compare the empirical and theoretical probabilities
• #### After the Activity

Students will complete the Worksheet and analyze the results.

Review student results:

• As a class, discuss questions that appeared to be more challenging
• Re-teach concepts as necessary