Module 3  Functions and Transformations  
Introduction  Lesson 1  Lesson 2  Lesson 3  Lesson 4  Self Test  
Lesson 3.2: Translations and Combined Transformations  
Lesson 3.1 discussed two types of transformations: stretches and reflections. This lesson will introduce translations, a third type of transformation, and discuss the effects of combining several types of transformations. Translations A translation sends all points of a graph the same distance in the same direction. Vertical Translations A vertical translation, or vertical shift, moves every point on a graph up or down the same distance. Explore the effect of adding three to the absolute value function.
The transformed graph is a vertical shift of up 3 units. The table and diagram below illustrate the vertical shift of 3 units upward. 3.2.1 Display the graphs of and and describe the transformations. Click here for the answer. Horizontal Shifts We have examined vertical transformations that were created by stretching or shrinking vertically, by reflecting across the xaxis, or by shifting upward or downward. In each case, we described how the transformed graph's yvalues were related to the corresponding yvalues of the original function. We will now examine the effect of adding to (or subtracting from) the xvalues before applying the function. Recall that when a constant was added to the yvalues, the transformation was a vertical shift. It should seem reasonable to conclude that when you add a constant to the xvalues, the transformation will be a horizontal shift. Describing Horizontal Shifts When describing a horizontal shift, it is helpful to see which xvalues produce the same yvalue. Display the function with the basic absolute value function and compare the xvalues that produce a specific yvalue.
The fixed output of y = 0 was produced by x = 0 in Y_{1} and was produced by x = 3 in Y_{2}. is a horizontal shift of left 3 units, which may be opposite to the direction you expected. 3.2.2 Use your calculator to experiment and find the function that will shift horizontally to the right 3 units. Click here for the answer. Horizontal Stretches and Compressions Just as multiplying a function by a constant stretches or shrinks the graph vertically, multiplying the xvalue by a constant before applying the function will stretch or shrink the graph horizontally. In many functions like the absolute value function, the horizontal compression appears to be a vertical stretch.
From the table it appears that the values of Y_{2} are twice that of the values of Y_{1}. This is true because The graphs of y = sin x and y = sin 2x better illustrate the effect of multiplying x by a constant. The Graph of y = sin x
Characteristics of the Sine Wave The graph of y = sin x has the characteristics listed below. The graph is periodic and has a period of 2 . That is, the yvalues repeat over xintervals of length 2 , or sin x = sin (x + 2 ). The graph has amplitude of 1. That is, the yvalues rise to 1 unit above the centerline and fall to 1 unit below the centerline. The domain of the sine function is the set of all real numbers. The range of the sine function is Special Points on y = sin x It is often useful to identify the five special points on the sine wave whose xvalues are and , as shown in the table and graph below. The Graph of y = sin 2x Now display the graph of y = sin 2x and compare it to the graph of y = sin x.
Combined Transformations The function combines several transformations of the graph of . The graph of is the graph of the basic function that has been:
The graphs below illustrate the above sequence of combined transformations. The graph is reflected across the xaxis.
The graph is then stretched by a factor of 2.
The graph is then translated right 4 units and up 3 units.
Recognizing the basic shape of a graph and then applying the indicated transformations will help you sketch the graph before displaying it with your calculator. 3.2.3 Describe the transformations in a correct order for the equation then sketch the graph with paper and pencil. Enter the equation in your calculator, graph it and compare it with your sketch. Click here for one correct answer.


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