Calculus
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Parametric Equations and Polar Coordinates
This unit has additional topics covered later in a first-year calculus courses, including arc length, polar coordinates and graphs, and parametric functions. Polar coordinates are an alternative coordinate system for the plane that many students do not become familiar with until calculus. Parametric functions (x(t),y(t)) allow for the definition of curves that can trace out virtually any path in the plane, including both function graphs y = f(x) and polar graphs r = f(?)